Ammo of Old Terra Version 2.0: Modern Military Ammo (Completed)

Peter Gray emptiedboat at
Wed Nov 1 23:42:20 CST 2006

(Added all omitted rounds previously submitted, plus three others. Also revised the 5.45mm round's
stats and dimensions; the previous version was actually a Russian sporting round that combined the
AK case necked down to accept the NATO 5.56mm! Every entry now has average barrel length figures
as well.)

The format is rather simple: the round's true dimensions for bullet diameter and case length,
followed by the common name(s) for the round. Its cartridge type, average muzzle energy, average
barrel length to attain that energy, mass, weapons commonly using the round and finally a
historical and technical recap. Additional abbreviations may be found in the true dimensional
data, and these are given as follows:
-"No Abbreviation": Rimless Round. The rim is equal or slightly smaller than the case diameter.
The vast majority of modern ammo are of this category.
-"R": Rimmed Round. There exists a prominent protruding rim around the base of the cartridge.
Rimmed rounds are generally designed for use in nonrepeating or manually loaded guns, and the rim
permits easier extraction with a hand or break open action.
-"SR": Semi-Rimmed Round. There exists a raised protruding rim around the base of the cartridge,
but is less prominent than in Rimmed ammunition. This ammo is rather rare, as it was a technical
compromise between established bolt action technology and newer automatic weapons like machine
-"B": Belted Round. The cartridge as a prominent raised belt running the circumerence of the
cartridge cylinder above the gap between the sidewall base and the rim. These are generally found
only in "Magnum" or "Ultra Magnum" cartridges of very high average energy. Its purpose is not so
much structural reinforcement as in providing stability to the round during firing: magnum loads
are so powerful that they can distort or torque the casing during initial ignition, pulling it out
of alignment with the bore and throwing off accuracy. The belt creates a tighter seating in the
chamber, and holds the round during the critical instant between primer ignition and the earliest
ejection of the bullet from the channelure. However, self-loading weapons cannot use belted ammo
as it does not chamber efficiently in anything other than manually loaded and cocked weapons.
Magnum ammo is usually encountered in the hands of sportsmen, though some police and paramilitary
snipers seem to prefer it in bolt action rifles.
-"RB": Rebated Round. The cartridge rim is noticeably less than the diameter of the casing.
Rebated rounds are the rarest of rounds. These are generally even more high powered bullets, which
require a fat cartridge to accomodate a bigger powder charge than in Magnums, but for whom the rim
cannot be so large that they cannot fit existing boltheads and extractors. In essence these are
very fat bullets that some shooters called them "brass sausages". The lack of the belt permits
these rounds to be used in self-loaders, though the adequacy of existing rifle ammo restricts
their use to large caliber pistols.

Type: 4.5x30.35mm-8
Common Designation: 4.6x30mm HK PDW
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 850 Joules
Ammo Weight: 4.83 Grams
Weapons: MP7 Submachine Gun
Description: Micro round developed from experimental ammo designed during the micro round fad of
the early 1970s. Good penetration ability and light recoil made it optimum for use in personal
defense weapons (PDW) designed primarily for second line and rear echelon soldiers.

Type: 5x48.9mm-7
Common Designation: 4.85mm British
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 1536 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 61.44 cm)
Round Mass: 9.6 Grams 
Weapons: Early versions of the L85 Assault Rifle
Description: Following the success of the 5.56mm round in US service during the Vietnam War,
various NATO partners attempted to design their own small caliber rounds for their services. Most
did not make it off of the drawing board, but the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield Lock went so
far as to create a new 4.85mm round for their impending "SA80" Assault Rifle. This round was
submitted to NATO trials in 1977, but was subsequently dropped in favor of a newer heavy bullet
version of the 5.56mm. Like the 6mm SAW, this round is offered as an alternative to the 5.56mm.

Type: 5.61x39.5mm-7
Common Designation: 5.45mm Warsaw Pact, 221 Russian
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked 
Average Muzzle Energy: 1562 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 49.64 cm)
Round Mass: 9.76 Grams
Weapons: Various Russian and Warsaw Pact 5.45mm Assault Rifles and LMGs
Description: The success of the American M16 in Vietnam spooked the Russians into developing their
own small caliber round to replace the 7.62x38.5mm round. Unfortunately the genius of Russian arms
development seems to have left them at this point, as it is damn near one of the worst small
combat rounds ever developed. The vices of the 5.56mm round (low penetration and stopping power)
were compounded by terrible quality control, lousy manufacturing tolerances and erratic
ballistics. When several former Warsaw Pact nations joined NATO, they gladly discarded this lemon
for the Alliance's ammo.

Type: 5.66x44.7mm-7
Common Designation: .223 Remington, 5.56mm NATO
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite CF
Average Muzzle Energy: 1799 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 56.17 cm)
Round Mass: 11.25 Grams
Weapons: 5.56mm Assault Rifle, 5.56mm SAW, 5.56mm LMG, .223 Hunting Rifle
Description: Unlike the ill starred 7.62mm NATO, the 5.56mm ammo seemed a better fit for a light
assault round in automatic weapons, even though early weapons for this round were cantankerous and
unreliable. Though nowhere as powerful as the bigger 7.62mm, NATO or Warsaw Pact, its lighter mass
made it easier to fire automatically, which cannot be said about the bigger rounds. Its lower
recoil and cheaper price made it attractive for military requisition. That being said, the 5.56
has proven to less than optimum in actual infantry engagements, lacking significant killing power
under all but the best of conditions. Most major Terran military powers switched eventually, 
during the early 21st century, in favor of more powerful 7mm short rounds like the 6.8mm SPC and
7mm Medium, and it became a fixture in police and second line military forces only.

Type: 6.17x45.79mm-7
Common Designation: 6mm SAW, 6mm Frankford
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 2191 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.55 cm)
Round Mass: 13.69 Grams
Weapons: Experimental 6mm LMGs and Assault Rifles
Description: During the late 1970s, the US Army issued a specification for a light machine gun
firing a round smaller than the 7.62mm NATO round. Because the specification did not specify which
caliber would be used, the Frankford Arsenal cooked up its own 6mm round for experimentation
purposes, and made such a large stockpile that the Army had to sell it off after deciding upon the
5.56mm. Several Terran colonies resurrected this round during the ROM period to assert their
independence of both Terra and the Second Imperium, and it remains a popular alternative military
round among many Solomani client states.

Type: 6.19x56.7mm-4
Common Designation: 6mm Navy, 6mm Lee
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 1911 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 49.87 cm)
Round Mass: 17.06 Grams
Weapons: M1895 Lee Straight-Pull Rifle
Description: The Lee pattern rifle actually originated in the United States of America, but was
only adopted by Britain and its colonies (a common pattern with late 19th century military
technology). The US Navy was the only military service to buy the indigenous design in any
quantity, and commissioned this cartridge and rifle during the small caliber fad of the 1890s.
Neither the bullet nor the rifle lived up to expectations and service life was short, though the
round persisted as a civilian sporter among handloaders.

Type: 6.63x50.8SRmm-4 
Common Designation: 6.5x51mmSR Arisaka
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 1964 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 44.68 cm)
Round Mass: 17.54 Grams
Weapons: Japanese 30th, 35th and 38th Year Arisaka Bolt Action Rifles; Type 11 and Type 93 MGs.
Standard Japanese round from the 1890s until the late 1930s. Insufficient time to adapt to the
newer 7.7mm round (see below) meant that these were the primary weapons used by the Japanese
military during WW2. It was insufficiently strong as a round, and was not particularly prized by
Japanese infantry.

Type: 6.65x53.6Rmm-4 
Common Designation: 6.5x54mmR Mannlicher-Schoenauer
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2085 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 47.15 cm)
Round Mass: 18.62 Grams
Weapons: Greek M1903 Mannlicher-Schoenauer Rifle (Dutch M1895 and Romanian M1893 Mannlicher bolt
action rifles)
Description: Small Mannlicher round developed for the MS rifle, the only rotary mag rifle ever to
attain general issue with a Terran military. One of the few rimless rounds ever developed for a
Mannlicher rifle. A rimmed round of virtually the same dimensions was developed for use by the
Romanian and Dutch armies.

Type: 6.68x53.09SRmm-4
Common Designation: 6.5mm Daudetau
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2084 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 46.7 cm)
Round Mass: 18.61 Grams
Weapons: M1895 French Naval Rifle
Description: The advent of the smokeless powder cartridge into popular military acceptance
propelled many experiments in smaller caliber bullets like the 6mm Lee and this round.

Type: 6.7x52.55mm-4
Common Designation: 6.5mm Carcano
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2075 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 46.22 cm)
Round Mass: 18.53 Grams
Weapons: Italian Carcano Rifles and MGs.
Description: Standard rifle and MG round of the Italian military before WW2. The bullet was rather
weak, wounding rather than killing a human sized target, and the Italian's attempted to rectify
its shortcomings with a new 7.35mm round (see below)

Type: 6.7x55mm-5 
Common Designation: 6.5mm Swedish Mauser
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 2482 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 55.29 cm)
Round Mass: 19.39 Grams
Weapons: Swedish AG-42 Rifle, Swedish M1896 Mauser Rifle
Description: Standard round of the Swedish Army prior to the adoption of the G3 Assault Rifle in
the mid 1960s. The 6.5mm had greater killing power than most light cartridges, and it remained a
popular hunting round after being phased out of military service.

Type: 6.71x57.9mm-4
Common Designation: 6.5mm Verguero
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2293 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 50.93 cm)
Round Mass: 20.47 Grams
Weapons: Portuguese M1903 Verguero Rifle
Description: The Portuguese military went looking for a new rifle and round to replace their
ancient Remington Rolling Block rifles. The government objected to the cost of new foreign
equipment, and this round was adopted as a compromise. These are the "modern" ammo stats, as the
original round was among the weakest of all military ammo.

Type: 7.03x42.54mm-8
Common Designation: 6.8mm SPC, US Military "G" Standard
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked
Average Muzzle Energy: 2906 Joules  (Average Barrel Length: 58.8 cm)
Round Mass: 16.51 Grams
Weapons: "G" series M4/M16 rifles and M60 GPMG
Description: The schizophrenic nature of American small arms development finally caught up with
their military forces during the early 2000s. Though the older M193 pattern 5.56mm ammo had done
pretty well in Southeast Asia, it had performed in circumstances peculiar to that theater.
Otherwise it proved to be a mediocre round. In the "War on Terror" (actually a war against a
discrete group of totalitarian Sunni Muslim extremists) the large tactical systems usually favored
by the US military establishment proved less important than individual infantrymen engaged in
firefights in urban environments. Numerous skirmishes showed that the 5.56mm round lacked proper
killing power and penetration of light structural barriers, and US Special Operation forces began
to experiment with a new round in order to redress the balance. After numerous false starts, the
wildcatters necked down an obsolete 32 Remington round to adopt a 7mm bullet, which was issued in
large numbers to Green Beret and other units operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. After the US
military withdrew from Iraq in 2010, it finally adopted the new round as standard issue to replace
the 5.56mm. At long last the US adopted a short 7mm round more than fifty years after it had been
first advocated by numerous experts and infantry officers.

Type: 7.16x43.2mm-6
Common Designation: .280 British, 7mm Medium
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked
Average Muzzle Energy: 2505 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 48.86 cm)
Round Mass: 17.39 Grams
Weapons: Enfield EM-2 Assault Rifle, Post-2010 European Union assault rifles and GPMGs
Description: The success of the German 8mm "Kurz" round during World War 2 inspired numerous
postwar attempts to emulate its success. The most advanced of these experiments was the British
7mm Medium round, which was a serious contender to become the standard NATO ammo. But the US
military establishment was blinkered by other concerns, and being dominant in NATO in the early
1950s, torpedoed any consideration of an alternative for the 30 caliber round. Thus NATO was
saddled with the overpowerful 7.62mm round, and the US military rifle development went in an
excruciating way after that. (The adoption of the 6.8mm SPC in 2010 no doubt had more than a few
long dead cartridge designers cartwheeling in their graves.) Following the US lead, the European
Union and its allies resurrected the 7mm Medium, and it became their standard small arms round
after 2012.

Type: 7.2x56.7mm-5
Common Designation: 7mm Mauser, 7x57mm Mauser
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked
Average Muzzle Energy: 2955 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.00 cm)
Round Mass: 23.09 Grams
Weapons: Various bolt action rifles and machine guns before 1945; various sporting rifles after
Description: Mauser Werkes developed several excellent calibers for their bolt action rifles
during the late 1880s. The 7mm round proved to be the most popular of these, as it was not as
overpowered as calibers in use with most European militaries. This was considered the best option
for the undersized infantry soldiers in service with many impoverished Latin American and Southern
European militaries. It also possessed perhaps the best ballistic performance of any Mauser round,
as it fired a lightweight bullet at very high velocity.

Type: 7.24x51.3mm-5
Common Designation: 276 Pederson
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 2703 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 51.57 cm)
Round Mass: 21.12 Grams
Weapons: 276 Pederson Rifle, early development models of the M1 Garand
Description: The excessive power of existing smokeless rifle rounds was made plainly evident by
experience in World War I. A number of cartridge manufacturers developed 7mm rounds that were
optimum for military use, but none of these were ever adopted due to rejection by postwar military
authorities over cost considerations. The 276 Pederson was perhaps the best of these, and was
almost adopted by the US Army (which would have eliminated all of the heartbreak created by the
7.62 and 5.56mm NATO rounds). During the Long Night, hundreds of worlds that found their
militaries could not maintain technology above a bolt action rifle adopted the Pederson or other
7mm cartridges for their infantrymen.

Type: 7.57x51.05mm-5 
Common Designation: 7.35x51mm Italian
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3287 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.36 cm)
Round Mass: 22.98 Grams
Weapons: Post-1938 Italian Rifles and MGs
Description: During the Ethiopian War the Italian Army "discovered" that the 6.5mm Carcano round
lacked lethality. This was probably another amazing case of Mussolini's generals and bureaucrats
always finding a timely excuse for their collective military ineptitude. So the Italian Army
designed this round to replace the Carcano, but, unfortunately, the outbreak of general war in
1940 with the Allies mitigated the cost and trouble of having to convert hundreds of thousands of
guns to a round of questionable merit, and few weapons were so converted before the end of the
war. At any rate the original Italian round was STILL barely adequate for the task.

Type: 7.7x55.37mm-5
Common Designation: 7.5x54mm Swiss, 7.5x54mm Schmidt-Rubin
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3585 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 62.62 cm)
Round Mass: 25.78 Grams
Weapons: Model 1889, 1911 and 1932 Schmidt-Rubin bolt action rifles, Sturmgewehr 57 Assault Rifle
Description: The Rubin system was Terra's first modern jacketed small arms bullet, and the Swiss
were the first to exploit it. This round was originally a 7.59mm round, but was upgraded when the
Swiss adopted a spitzer bullet after 1911. This round was replaced with the 7.62mm NATO round
after 1962.

Type: 7.82x32.8mm-6
Common Designation: .30 Carbine
Type: Straight Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 504 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 8.24 cm)
Round Mass: 12.6 Grams
Weapons: M1 Carbine and Variants
Description: Light round adapted from the 30-06 for second line and rear echelon soldiers in the
US Army during WW2. After WW2, the US Army released the M1 Carbine in significant numbers into the
civilian and foreign military markets, making it a popular self defense and light hunting caliber.

Type: 7.82x51mm-6
Common Designation: .308 Winchester, 7.62mm NATO 
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite 
Average Muzzle Energy: 3527 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.68 cm)
Round Mass: 24.5 Grams
Weapons: 7.62mm Assault Rifle, 7.62mm MMG, .308 Rifle
Description: One of the sorer points of Terran military alliances was the enforced acceptance of
this round as NATO standard in the early 1950s. The US military establishment used its early
dominance of the NATO alliance to foist this round on its partners, only to personally abandon it
when its poor recoil characteristics in autofire became evident. The round is simply a necked down
30.06 round, onbe ironically with a chamber pressure and velocity only slightly less than the
older round, with no evident improvement in round efficiency or mass. Its trajectory is an
improvement over the older round, and many hunters and snipers seem to prefer it.

Type: 7.82x54mm-5
Common Designation: 7.5mm French Service M1929C
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3320 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 54.29 cm)
Round Mass: 25.94 Grams
Weapons: French MAS rifles, Chatellerault MGs
Description: Standard French rifle round between 1929 and the adoption of the 7.62mm NATO in the
mid 1950s. Originally it was based upon the case of the German 8x57mmS Mauser and known as the
M1924, but the possibility of accidental crossloading of that ammo into French weapons led to a
shortening of the cartridge a few years later.

Type: 7.82x58.7mm-4
Common Designation: 8mm Krag, 30-40 Krag
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Round Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 3158 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 51.64 cm)
Round Mass: 28.19 Grams
Weapons: Norwegian and American Model 1890 Krag-Jorgennson Rifle
Description: The precursor to the moder 30 caliber round was originally developed in cooperation
between American and Norwegian military authorities to be the equal to new developments in German
Mausers and other continental weapons. Unfortunately they developed a very high powered round
(chamber pressures in excess of 55,000 psi) for a rifle with a single lug bolt. American troops in
Cuba experienced numerous chamber or bolt failures, and the US opted for a Mauser system rifle and
a new round based upon the Krag (the 30-03 and 30-06 rounds). The round remained in service with
the Norwegian Army, and served against the invading Germans during World War 2.

Type: 7.82x63.3mm-5
Common Designation: 30.06 ("Thirty Aught Six"), .30 Springfield
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3891 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 63.63 cm)
Round Mass: 30.4 Grams
Weapons: TL-5 Battle Rifle, TL-5 Springfield/Browning Autorifle, 0.3 MMG, 30.06 Hunting Rifle
Description: In contrast to its ugly offspring, the Thirty Aught Six had a very long and
successful military and civilian career. The round was first introduced in 1906, making it one of
the longest serving rounds in history.

Type: 7.89x53.5mm-5 
Common Designation: 7.62x54mmR Russian, 7.62x53mm Finnish
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3348 Joules (Average Muzzle Energy: 53.78 cm)
Round Mass: 26.15 Grams
Weapons: Mosin-Nagant battle rifle, Dragunov Sniper Rifle, "Modern" Russian MGs
Description: Standard TL 4-5 round of the old Soviet Army. Adapted for sniper rifle use at TL-6
loadings. While the rimmed round has slightly more power than the comparable 30-06 round, the
obsolete casing was a major source of pain for Russian and Soviet gun designers. The taper on a
rimmed round makes extraction in automatic weapons difficult, requiring rear loading and
extraction equipment of extraordinary size and complexity to be retained on belt loading guns. 

Type: 7.89x56.4mm-5 
Common Description: .303 British
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3530 Joules (Average Muzzle Energy: 56.7 cm)
Round Mass: 27.58 Grams
Weapons: .303 Lee-Enfield Rifles, Bren LMGs
Description: First British military round to be purposely designed for modern repeating rifles.
Original black powder round converted to cordite smokeless powder propellant in the mid 1890s for
the new Lee-Enfield pattern rifles. Standard round until after WW2. Unlike the Mosin-Nagant (see
above) the British adopted a curved box magazine pattern adaption for their Bren LMGs, and avoided
the feed complexities of Russian MGs.

Type: 7.9x38.5mm-5
Common Designation: 7.62mm Warsaw Pact
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 2409 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 38.6 cm)
Round Mass: 18.9 Grams 
Weapons: 7.62mm WP Assault Rifle, 7.62mm WP MMG, 7.62mm Sporting Rifle
Description: Another example of the ludicrous nomenclature of Solomani rounds and ammo. Despite
being designated as a 7.62mm round, it is actually closer to 7.92mm than its parent, the 7.92x33mm
Kurz. This remained for the longest time one of the most common assault and military rounds
available to Terran militaries, though not because of its effectiveness. Most militaries became
disenchanted with its high recoil, spotty accuracy, and terrible manufacturing tolerances. But it
was built in such enormous numbers for the gargantuan Soviet military that it was easy to export
to allied revolutionaries and armies at a very low unit cost with plenty of spare parts and ammo
to go around.

Type: 7.9x53.6mm-4 
Common Designation: 7.65x53mm Belgian Mauser
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2910 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 46.63 cm)
Round Mass: 26.27 Grams
Weapons: Belgian M1893 Mauser Rifle
Description: Standard rifle round of Belgian forces during both World Wars. The Belgian government
established Fabrique Nationale simply for the purpose of building Mauser rifles for both domestic
and export use, and this was the round the Belgian Army preferred.

Type: 7.9x57.66mm-5 
Common Designation: 7.7x58mm Arisaka (in rimmed, semi-rimmed and rimless casings)
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3618 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.97 cm)
Round Mass: 28.26 Grams
Weapons: Japanese Type 99 Rifle, Type 92 and Type 99 LMGs 
Description: In an amazing coincidence (predating the Italians by several years), the Japanese
Army "discovered" during the Manchurian War that their 6.5mm Arisaka rounds lacked lethality.
Fortunately the round that succeeded it was actually much better than the Italian replacement, and
gave good service to Japanese troops against Allied forces.

Type: 8.08x57mm-5
Common Designation: 8x57mmJ Mauser (Also Rimmed) (Round tipped bullets)
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3741 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.3 cm)
Round Mass: 29.23 Grams
Weapons: German bolt action rifles (Gewehr 1888 and early Mauser Model 1898)
Description: The introduction of the first German smokeless small arms round, the 8x57mm "I"
(Infanterie) round, in 1888 was soon accompanied by its commercialisation, a first for such ammo.
The round tipped "I" round was replaced by the "S" (Spitzer) round in 1906, but many existing
rifles could not handle the higher chamber pressures of the new round, and the old round remained
in commercial production for decades 

Type: 8.1x50.8mm-4 
Common Designation: 8x50mmR Lebel
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2932 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 44.69 cm)
Round Mass: 26.18 Grams
Weapons: M1886 Lebel Rifle, M1916 Berthier Rifle, M1909 and M1914 Hotchkiss MGs, and the Chauchat
Description: Among the first smokeless powder rounds to be introduced on Terra, the Lebel was used
in the revolutionary Lebel Model 1886 rifle, the first Terran military issue repeating rifle. In
reality both the round and the rifle introduced a few new features and mixed them with older
technology. The Lebel rifle used a tubular magazine at a time when the Germans and British were
using Lee pattern integral stack mags, and the Lebel round itself was rimmed, a holdover feature
from black powder rounds. The French retained the use of this round until after World War 1, when
it was replaced by the more modern 7.5mm round (see above). Weapons of this caliber remained in
vast numbers in storage, and were probably used by both French reservists and German occupation
troops until 1945.

Type: 8.13x33mm-5
Common Designation: 7.92mm Kurz 
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 2193 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 33.18 cm)
Round Mass: 17.13 Grams 
Weapons: MP-44 Assault Rifle
Description: Yet more evidence of the insane nomenclature for Solomani small arms ammo! The Kurz
round was designed by the German Army for new automatic rifles that required a reliable round that
had both high velocities and yet lower recoil than the older 7.92x57mm Mauser (Actual
dimensions: 8.2x57mm). When the new NATO alliance went looking for a common assault rifle round,
the Kurz was actually considered, before the Americans used their strategic preeminence to foist
its modified 7.62mm round on its fellows. This round is something of a relic, but some militaries
resurrected the MP-44 and its ammo during the Long Night.

Type: 8.15x50.29Rmm-4
Common Designation: 8x50Rmm Siamese
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2938 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 44.23 cm)
Round Mass: 26.24 Grams
Weapons: Model 1904 and 04/22 Rifles
Description: This round was specifically made for the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) during the
early 1900s for their Mannlicher and Mauser pattern rifles. Its only remarkable feature was the
retention of a rim, for the Siamese Army was reluctant to adopt automatic weapons.

Type: 8.15x51.82Rmm-5
Common Designation: 8x52Rmm Siamese
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3460 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 52.09 cm)
Round Mass: 27.03 Grams
Weapons: Model 04/22 Mauser and Arisaka Rifles
Description: The advent of the spitzer bullet prompted Siamese military officials to adopt a new
round in 1923 for its riflemen. During World War 2 Siam was occupied by the Japanese Army, and
officially was a client state. Unofficially the Siamese government hid most of their munitions
industry in the bush, and these supplied a robust guerrilla movement until liberation by the
British in 1945. The chief weapon of this resistance were captured Japanese rifles rechambered for
the 8mm round.

Type: 8.18x50.3mm-4 
Common Description: 8mmR Mannlicher
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullet)
Average Muzzle Energy: 2961 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 44.25 cm)
Round Mass: 26.43 Grams
Weapons: Austrian Mannlicher rifles, 8mm Schwarzlose Machine Guns
Description: The misfortunately named Mr. Mannlicher was one of the giants of Pre-WW1 gun
development. He developed a system of rifles that were unusually adaptable to the requirements of
customer militaries and subsequently developed a family of cartridges for each of them. This is
the flagship round, built for his native Austria, and used during both World Wars by various

Type: 8.18x57.9Rmm-4
Common Designation: 8mm Danish Krag
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Round Tip Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 3408 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 50.93 cm)
Round Mass: 30.43 Grams
Weapons: Norwegian and Danish M1890 Krag Rifles
Description: This Danish designed round was standard issue in the armies of both Norway and
Denmark between 1890-1955. Like the 30-40 Krag in US Army service, this round stressed the single
lug bolt to its structural limit, though not apparently enough for either country to replace with
a newer Mauser system rifle. The Krag rifle had a unique side mounted loading gate, and this
permitted easy chambering of the rimmed round without any hassle. 

Type: 8.2x57mm-5
Common Designation: 8x57mmS Mauser, 7.92mm Mauser
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3853 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 57.3 cm)
Round Mass: 30.1 Grams
Weapons: 8mm Mauser Battle Rifles, G43 Sniper Rifle, 8mm MGs
Description: Old standard of Terra's German Army. Mostly a hobbyist weapon by the time of the
Vilani contact, but it regained a cachet with some TL 4-5 militaries subsequently.

Type: 8.2x94.74mm-5 
Common Designation: 7.92x95mm Patrone
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 6404 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 95.24 cm)
Round Mass: 50.03 Grams
Weapons: German Panzerbuchse 39 Antitank Rifle
Description: Before WW2, tank armor was still of sufficient lightness that it seemed an infantry
round could be adapted to knocking them out. Using experience with a 92mm long round of the same
caliber used to attack British tanks in WW1, the Wehrmacht combined the Mauser round with a necked
down 13mm machine gun cartridge standard issue in the Luftwaffe, and created this round for a
single shot rifle. The round was obsolete by early 1941, and the rifle was converted into a rifle
grenade launcher (Granatbuchse 41).

Type: 8.2x63mm-5
Common Designation: 8x63mm Swedish
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 4259 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 63.34 cm)
Round Mass: 33.27 Grams
Weapons: Swedish M1903 and M1917 Browning MMG
Description: The Swedes became disenchanted, in the late 1920s, with the performance of the light
6.5mm Mauser round in machine guns and other heavy support weapons. By 1933 the had developed a
new and more powerful round for their Browning-pattern water and air cooled machine guns. In
addition to being a general support round, it became the primary round for MGs on AFVs and

Type: 8.28x59.18mm-5
Common Designation: 8mm Breda M35
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 4079 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 59.5 cm)
Round Mass: 31.87 cm
Weapons: Model 37 and 38 Breda MMG, Model 35 Fiat-Revelli MMG
Description: Throughout much of their country's history, the Italian military had been one of the
longest running jokes in Europe. Historically their military establishment had demonstrated more
fervor and enthusiasm than consistent professionalism or organization. But from time to time even
a bad military can have moments of competence or brilliance. The 8mm Breda round was adopted in
the mid 1930s perhaps in hope of using automatic weapons to compensate for the limitations of the
Italian infantry. It was one of the most powerful rounds to be used in regular infantry service by
any military during WWII.

Type: 8.33x56.1mm-4
Common Description: 8x56mmR Hungarian Mannlicher
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 3424 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 49.34 cm)
Round Mass: 30.57 Grams
Weapons: Hungarian 35M Mannlicher Rifle
Description: Besides going down in infamy for having a name that put two already questionable
words into one loaded phrase, this round was an older round adapted for newer technology for the
Hungarian Army in 1931. The Hungarian fascist regime was an ally of Nazi Germany (along with
Romania and Bulgaria), and its troops served on the Eastern Front against Russia.

Type: 8.36x52.32Rmm-4
Common Designation: 8mm Murata
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked Cordite (Blunt Nosed Bullets)
Average Muzzle Energy: 3217 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 46.02 cm)
Round Mass: 28.72 Grams
Weapons: Meiji 21st Year (AD 1889) Murata Rifle
Description: The 8mm Murata was contemporaneous with the 303 British, the 8mm Lebel, and 8x57mm
Mauser, and therefore one of the first smokeless powder military rounds to be introduced into
frontline military service, and the first to be used in a major war (the Sino-Japanese War of
1894-95). Experience in that conflict showed that the old Murata rifle to be inadequate, though it
remained in service through the Russo-Japanese War of ten years later.

Type: 12.97x99.3mm-5 
Common Designation: 0.50 Browning Machine Gun, 12.7mm HMG 
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 16,793 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 99.83 cm)
Round Mass: 130.8 Grams
Weapons: .50 HMG, .50 Sniper or Anti-Material Rifles, .50 Single Shot Target Rifle
Description: The premier HMG round of Terra. With good reliability, near perfect ballistics, and
damn good range, the BMG remained in frontline military service with a number of major Terran
countries until well after the Vilani contact. The weapon was mounted on planes, helicopters, used
as secondary or primary armaments on AFVs, was fired from static positions by infantry, or used as
a perimeter weapon on naval vessels. Sniper weapons chambering this round became extremely
popular for their range, hitting power and accuracy. Even a multibarrel minigun was developed
using this round. It was extremely abundant among industrial and post-industrial technology worlds
of the Solomani Confederation and Third Imperium or their client states, and may be
encountered in just about any role.

Type: 12.95x107.95mm-5 
Common Designation: 12.7x107mm Russian
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 18,200 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 108.53 cm)
Round Mass: 142.18 Grams
Weapons: DShK HMG, NPV HMG, "Gepard" Anti-Material Rifles
Description: Standard Soviet-era heavy machine gun round for tanks and fixed positional firing.
Slightly more powerful than 50 BMG round.

Type: 13.06x80.26mm-5 
Common Description: .50 Vickers or 12.7x80mmSR Vickers
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 13,762 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 80.69 cm)
Round Mass: 107.52 Grams
Weapons: "Heavy Vickers" watercooled MGs of WW2
Description: During the run up to WW2, the British Tank Corps began looking for a heavy caliber
weapon to emplace upon light tanks and armored cars to replace the eccentric Madsen M1904 MGs of
WW1 vintage. Vickers simply upsized the receiver, bolt and cooling jacket of the older 303 MG, and
these were used on several light vehicles and as AA guns on merchant ships and from airfields.
This round is semi-rimmed, meaning that it appears to be rimless, but the flange is actually
slightly wider than the cartridge case; this was adopted so the extractor and ejector of the 303
gun could be used unchanged for the larger and heavier round.

Type: 14.32x100.3mm-5 
Common Description: .55 Boys
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 20,677 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 100.83 cm)
Round Mass: 161.54 Grams
Weapons: Boys Antitank Rifle
Description: One of several AT rifle rounds put forward by European governments during the 1930s.
Weapons of this nature were already dated as tank armor increased logarithmically during WW2,
thanks to improving metallurgy, production techniques and vehicle powerplants. The Boys remained
in service with the British and Indian Armies as anti-material weapons against German emplacements
and pillboxes. The round us named after a member of the design board who passed away before
service acceptance of the round.

Type: 14.9x114mm-5 
Common Description: 14.5x114mm Russian
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 25,443 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 114.6 cm)
Round Mass: 198.78 Grams
Weapons: Soviet KPV HMG, PTRS/PTRD Antitank Rifles
Description: This heavyweight round is actually more like a cannon than a small arm. Developed
prior to WW2 for naval AA guns, the round lent itself well to antitank rifles until the end of the
war, before becoming the standard main armament of the postwar BTR ("butterstick") APCs. The
"Crunch Gun" round appears to be an adaptation of this round using a longer cartridge and more
modern manufacturing techniques.

Type: 14.99x103.9mm-5 
Common Description: 15mm Besa, .60 HMG
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 23,470 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 104.45 cm)
Round Mass: 183.36 Grams
Weapons: British 15mm HMG
Description: The 15mm Besa was manufactured in moderate numbers during the war as a replacement
for the water-cooled 12.7mm Vickers mounted in armored cars and light tanks during the prewar
period. The 15mm was prone to severe stoppages, but it has been resurrected several times by
industrial-tech worlds in improved form for light AFVs like recce cars and APCs. 

Type: 15.57x105.9mm-8
Common Designation: 15.5mm BRG
Cartridge Type: Bottle Necked
Average Muzzle Energy: 32,261 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 133.08 cm)
Round Mass: 201.63 Grams
Weapons: FN BRG Heavy Machine Gun
Description: Fabrique Nationale, one of the two main holders for John Browning's patents,
introduced a new 15mm HMG in the early 1980s as a possible replacement for the old 50 cal
Browning. Problems with the ammo led to a drastic redesign, creating this particular round, which
uses a driving band similar to a cannon round. The BRG was slow to catch on, though it was
eventually adopted by the US Army and Navy after the Iraq War. The BRG did not displace the older
.50 until the early 2020s, owing to the massive size of the original models, but it did become the
main armament for most M8 Strykers, and it was commonly emplaced on other AFVs as the vehicle
commander's weapon.

Type: 19.89x104.9mm-5 
Common Description: 20mm Short Solothurn
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 41,720 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 105.46 cm)
Round Mass: 325.94 Grams
Weapons: Solothurn S-18/100 Antitank Rifle
Description: This round was adapted by the Swiss firm Solothurn in the early 1930s from the
Erhardt 20mm Cannon of WW1, and wound up in a AT rifle (The "Swisscheeser") adopted in small
numbers by Italy, Hungary and Switzerland before WW2, and which has reappeared in small numbers
since the Collapse. The round was eventually developed with an even longer casing to create the
Long Solothurn. (see below)

Type: 19.89x124.46mm-5 
Common Description: 20x124mm Japanese
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 49,499 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 125.12 cm)
Round Mass: 386.71 Grams
Weapons: Japanese Type 97 Antitank Rifle
Description: Following the same trend in developing infantry portable AT rifles, the Japanese
developed this round out of an aircraft cannon, and subsequently developed an AT rifle that pushed
it to its zenith: the fully automatic Type 97 (AKA the "Bleeding Sun" rifle in the Wilds). But
this isn't the most powerful of these rounds....

Type: 19.89x137.67mm-5 
Common Description: Long Solothurn
Type: Bottle Necked Cordite
Average Muzzle Energy: 54,753 Joules (Average Barrel Length: 138.4 cm)
Round Mass: 427.76 Grams
Weapons: German Panzerbuchse 41 Antitank Rifle, Finnish M39 Antitank Rifle
Description: If their could be a round that would make a person doubt or believe in the existence
of a god, this might be it. This mind-boggling round was developed out of the Swiss "Short
Solothurn" round for Axis AT rifles. These include the Pzb 41 ("Der Kapten Crunch") and the
unbelievably powerful M39 (AKA "The Finnishing Touch" Gun) which has a muzzle energy of 54,931
joules (House Rules Damage Value of 16). Both of these weapons have reappeared since the Collapse
to terrorize both Viral and biological raiders.

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